Modernism for the Masses

Design Research

The 1939 World’s Fair in New York City introduced many new products and ideas about the future of the American home, promoting industrial design and new materials. But where could the average consumer touch, feel and buy modern design? And how could they learn how to choose, and use, the revolutionary new shapes, products and appliances? This lecture will demonstrate how modern design was popularized for the American consumer, highlighting the importance of designers like Russel and Mary Wright, curators like Alexander Girard and John McAndrew, and shopkeepers like Benjamin Thompson at Design Research or Kitty Weese and Jody Kingrey at Baldwin Kingrey.

Alexandra Lange is an architecture and design critic. Her essays, reviews, and features Alexandra_Langehave appeared in Architect, Domus, Dwell, Medium, Metropolis, New York Magazine, the New Yorker blog, and the New York Times. She has a monthly Opinion column at Dezeen. During academic year 2013–2014 she was a Loeb Fellow at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. She is the author of Writing About Architecture: Mastering the Language of Buildings and Cities (Princeton Architectural Press, 2012), as well as the e-book The Dot-Com City: Silicon Valley Urbanism (Strelka Press, 2012). She has long been interested in the creation of domestic life, a theme running through Design Research: The Store that Brought Modern Living to American Homes (Chronicle Books, 2010), which she co-authored with Jane Thompson, as well as her contributions to Formica Forever (Metropolis Books, 2013) and Eero Saarinen: Shaping the Future (Yale University Press, 2006). www.alexandralange.net

SAF Lecture: Modernism for the Masses
Thursday, April 23, 2015
Presented by Alexandra Lange
5:30 to 8:00 pm
Complimentary Meet-and-Greet Reception follows the lecture.
Herald-Tribune, 1741 Main Street, Sarasota, FL 34236

Sponsored by the Community Foundation of Sarasota County.

$10 SAF Members
$15 Public
Free Students, full-time with ID
Purchase Tickets Online

Photo at top: Design Research, Ezra Stoller/ESTO

Save the Paul Rudolph Canopies in Sarasota FL Under Threat of Demolition

By Alastair Gordon
https://www.facebook.com/alastair.gordon.5

It’s been a rough month for architect Paul Rudolph. First, there was news of his Orange County Government Center in Goshen, NY being torn down and now, I just got word from the Sarasota Architectural Foundation that Rudolph’s elegantly minimal pedestrian canopies that extend around the side and back of his Sarasota Senior High School (1958-1960) are in imminent danger of being demolished by none other than Ringling College of Art + Design and the Sarasota Museum of Art (SMOA). Why would a museum want to tear down such an important historic artifact that was designed by the most famous architect of the Sarasota School? It truly beggars the imagination! Most cultural institutions would do anything to have such beautiful modernist structures as part of their campus.

Joseph Molitor photo of Sarasota High School showing all the Paul Rudolph-designed canopies, dated February 9, 1960.

Joseph Molitor photo of Sarasota High School showing all the Paul Rudolph-designed canopies, dated February 9, 1960.

Yes, I can see a clunky transition from parking lot to the back entry of the old brick high school building (c.1926) that the college is now renovating into a museum, but any decent architect would be able to figure out a smooth transition that incorporates the Rudolph canopies while doing a minimum of damage and still announcing “entry” to the people who are entering the museum from the parking lot side.

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Sarasota High School Canopy Walkway. Photo courtesy Mary Ann Sullivan, Bluffton University.

The Sarasota County School Board did a commendable job in first saving and then meticulously restoring the Rudolph Sarasota High School Addition. Now Ringling College must follow suit and see the logic and historic necessity of saving the Rudolph canopies that extend from the high school onto their part of the property and link the two buildings as they were originally intended to do. The canopies are as important a part of the overall design as the main school building.

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Sarasota High School Canopy Walkway designed by architect Paul Rudolph. Illustration by John Pirman, http://www.johnpirman.com

Please reach out ASAP and send an e-mail to Dr. Larry R. Thompson who is President of Ringling College and therefore the key decision maker in the building process. (The Sarasota Museum of Art is a project of Ringling College.)

Dr. Thompson’s email address is: officeofpres@ringling.edu

Please don’t hesitate to voice your opinion (esp. all of my architect and arch. critic friends) and let them know how you feel about the importance of these Rudolph’s canopies! Thank you for your participation!


Alastair Gordon is Contributing Editor at WSJ Magazine, Architecture Critic at the Miami Herald and Distinguished Fellow at Miami Beach Urban Studios. He is the author of numerous critically-acclaimed books on architecture, art and urbanism including Weekend Utopia, Naked Airport, Spaced Out, Wandering Forms, Theater of Shopping, Qualities of Duration, Beach Houses, Romantic Modernist, and Think or Swim, an in-depth biography of R. Buckminster Fuller. alastairgordonwalltowall.com

Kickstarter Campaign: Help Archive Harry Bertoia’s Complete Sonambient Recordings

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1983757235/help-archive-harry-bertoias-complete-sonambient-re/widget/video.html

Harry Bertoia_Sonambients_wright20

Save Harry Bertoia’s massive archive of Sonambient recordings.

With your help, The Harry Bertoia Foundation, Bertoia Studios and Important Records will be able to make the highest possible quality digital transfers of the 350+ reels of unheard sessions that Harry Bertoia left behind when he died in 1978.

Harry Bertoia is a renowned sculptor, print maker, jewelry maker, furniture designer and sound artist. Become a part of this important project to launch Harry Bertoia into the twenty-first century and preserve an important piece of modern art and music history.

Thank you for your support – it’s greatly appreciated.
harrybertoia.org
bertoiastudio.com

Sarasota Through the Eyes of One of Its Most Outspoken Architects

The Florida city would be a much different place without Tim Seibert and the Sarasota School of Architecture.

By Debra Bruno
The Atlantic, CityLab

The Siesta Key House, architect Tim Seibert, photo by Larry Reinebach

The Siesta Key House, architect Tim Seibert, photo by Larry Reinebach

Picture a one-story wooden house shaped more or less like a box, situated along a Florida canal. Its living space opens to the outside, with wide glass doors, louvered blinds, and a glass roof covering an unadorned grass patio. Basically, Frank Lloyd Wright goes to the beach.

While that simple home on Siesta Key near Sarasota no longer exists, its designer, and one of the original members of the Sarasota School of Architecture, is very much around.

Tim Seibert, 87, helped to create what is today known as the Sarasota School of Architecture, a modernist mid-century style that makes the most of south Florida’s humid subtropical climate.

Sarasota would be a very different place without the influence of the Sarasota modernists, says Dr. Christopher Wilson, architecture and design historian at Ringling College of Art + Design and board member of the Sarasota Architectural Foundation. And while most scholars credit architects like Paul Rudolph and Ralph Twitchell as founders of the school, Seibert “wins the longevity award,” says Wilson. His first home was built when he was 25 and he worked up until his 80s.

Seibert also stands out today because he isn’t shy about speaking out. In the new documentary “The Seibert Effect” by filmmaker and retired Chicago engineer Larry Reinebach, Seibert talks about designing condominiums that were “more like a resort and less like a place to put old people.” He told the Sarasota Herald-Tribune that Sarasota’s downtown Bayfront area was an example of “cultural indigestion.”

About the site of his former home on Siesta Key, he said, “Siesta looks the way it does because so many members of the old Sarasota establishment sold their land out to developers and got big bucks.”

There’s a good deal of truth to that: Sarasota today feels more like a hodgepodge of traffic jams, retirees from Canada hunting for shells along the beach, and a mixture of Italianate, Spanish, and one-story developments that now cover land where orange groves and dairy farms once stood.

At the same time, it’s also something of an oasis in a fast-growing Florida. The modernist style that put Sarasota on the map in the 1950s and ’60s is undergoing a revival, says Martie Lieberman, a Sarasota real estate agent who specializes in mid-century modern homes and is a co-founder of the Sarasota Architectural Foundation. “There’s a resurgence—although there’s always been a cool, hip crowd interested in it,” she says.

The problem for Sarasota is how to preserve these architectural gems in a city that has not made historic preservation a priority. Just two homes—the Umbrella House built in 1953 by Paul Rudolph and the Cocoon House built by Ralph Twitchell and Rudolph in 1950—have been listed on the city’s register of historic places, says Wilson.

Seibert himself is not anti-development per se. In fact, because his work for clients ranged from luxury homes to corporate office buildings, Seibert’s influence is “more widespread through our community,” Reinebach says. But Seibert does decry helter skelter growth. “I think one of the big problems today is the automobile,” he says by phone from his home on the island of Boca Grande, about 60 miles south of Sarasota. While Boca Grande once had no bridge access, it does now, which he says means the area is “being trampled beneath automobiles.”

The biggest challenge for mid-century modern homes is probably along the beach. Many of the former modernist homes were situated along the Gulf Coast. But a home that might be as small as 1,000 square feet on such prime real estate is often replaced by a behemoth.

Walker Guest House, architect Paul Rudolph, 1953, photo by Ezra Stoller courtesy ESTO

Walker Guest House, architect Paul Rudolph, 1953, photo by Ezra Stoller courtesy ESTO

The Sarasota Architectural Foundation is trying to raise awareness of the fragility of the style by recreating the Paul Rudolph-designed Walker Guest House, a privately owned home on Sanibel Island, for a November conference [SarasotaMOD Weekend November 6 – 8, 2015] on the grounds of The Ringling Museum of Art. “It is the most perfect example of the Sarasota school,” Wilson says. Visitors will be able to enter the small wood and screen building and try out the louvers that regulate air flow, says Wilson. The foundation hopes to take the building on tour around the country as well.

Today, Seibert designs wooden sailboats and spends many of his days sailing in the Gulf off Boca Grande. His earlier home on Siesta Key had been torn down and replaced with a “McMansion,” he says. “If you want to be fatuous about life, why not do it well and be elegant?” he asks. “[the McMansions] are just awful.”

Design Tourist Visits Sarasota’s Architectural Mecca

Revisiting Paul Rudolph

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Image 1: Paul Rudolph overlooking the drafting room of his Yale Art & Architecture Building (now Rudolph Hall), where he served as dean to an influential generation of postwar modernists. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

The Tide is Turning for a Pivotal Modernist Master
By Mike Singer

In the late 1950s and 1960s, Paul Rudolph was one of the most prominent architects in the world. (Image 1)

Rudolph, an itinerant Methodist minister’s son from Alabama, taught some of today’s most prominent designers: Norman Foster, Hon. FAIA; Richard Rogers, Hon. FAIA; Robert A. M. Stern, FAIA; Charles Gwathmey, FAIA; Stanley Tigerman, FAIA; David Childs, FAIA. Rudolph also chaired the Department of Architecture at Yale University’s School of Art & Architecture (which he also designed) from 1958 to 1965—a particularly fertile time in both architectural education and architecture.

“Rudolph was this amazing instructor who made you do things and think things you never thought you had in you. In our class there were 15 people, and half were from other countries. He called us his ‘little United Nations,’” says Carl Abbott, FAIA, a former Rudolph student who returned to Yale in 2008 to rededicate the School of Art as Rudolph Hall, after a multimillion dollar renovation by Gwathmey Siegel & Associates.

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Image 2: Yale’s Art & Architecture Building, dedicated in 1963 and rededicated as Rudolph Hall in 2008, marked the first appearance of the corrugated concrete walls that became Rudolph’s signature. Photo: Derr Scutt, courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

With its staggered towers, corrugated concrete surfaces, and complex interior spaces, Rudolph Hall was as difficult as the architect himself. (Image 2)

“Rudolph’s whole life was architecture and his students were his family,” says Abbott. “He was very violent to some [students] and amazingly generous to others. If you were in a group he really cared about, he would push you harder than you could ever stand, and he would make you see things in your own work that you could never have possibly seen.”

A mysterious fire gutted Rudolph’s school in 1969, only six years after it opened, damaging the building and destroying student work, instructor materials, and administrative files. It also damaged Rudolph’s reputation at a time when campus unrest—at Yale and hundreds of other schools around the country—represented a perfect metaphor for a broken academic system.

The curricula within America’s “citadels of learning” were out of step with the social change that students desired. But the physical citadels, the results of campus growth and monolithic planning throughout the 1950s and 1960s, were also out of step with burgeoning ideas about community, access, and social equity.

Although he completed an eclectic mix of over 150 buildings, and designed an almost equal number of unbuilt ones during five decades of practice, Rudolph has been categorized—and marginalized—as a Brutalist who fell out of favor in the 1970s when the architectural milieu shifted away from High Modern concepts of form, procession, and materiality.

While that may have very well been the end of Rudolph’s legacy, he has come roaring back in the last several years—and there’s plenty to reconsider.

Restoring the Last Modernist

“[Rudolph] cultivated the image of a maverick who would save architecture from the monotony of the dominant International Style by reintroducing subjects that he said had been ‘brushed aside,’ namely: monumentality, decoration, symbolism, and urbanism,” writes Timothy M. Rohan, associate professor of art history at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, in The Architecture of Paul Rudolph (Yale University Press, 2014). “Rudolph advocated a heroic approach to modernism that extolled individuality, aesthetics, and creativity.” Rohan’s book is the first scholarly monograph on Rudolph since his death, in 1997, and it provides much-needed context for the architect’s long and often misunderstood career.

From Rudolph’s Sarasota, Florida, beach cottages in the 1940s and ’50s—such as the

Healy Guest House

Image 3: Healy Guest House, aka Cocoon House, on Sarasota’s Siesta Key, 1948. Notable for its cantilevered roof and water bank overhang, the house generated widespread national publicity for Rudolph and Ralph Twitchell. Photo by Greg Wilson.

Healy Guest House (Image 3) and Revere Quality House, to his role as one of the developers of the expressive concrete monumentality known as Brutalism in the 1960s’ Government Service Center in Boston, Orange County [N.Y.] Government Center (Image 4), and Endo Laboratories, in Garden City, N.Y. (Image 5), Rohan’s book has prompted a re-evaluation of Rudolph’s work, and his working style.

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Image 4: Customized fluted concrete blocks were used in Rudolph’s Orange County Government Center, Goshen, N.Y. (1963–71), which narrowly escaped recent demolition attempts. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

“He drew every day, from when he was a teenager to the last weeks of his life,” said Rohan. “He didn’t become a larger-scale shop like his contemporaries I.M Pei, Philip Johnson and Marcel Breuer. At the most, in New York in the late 1960s, he never had more than 30 architects and never partners. He believed that nothing should come between you and your work, and didn’t think architectural partners were a good idea.

“He had close supervision of everything and his approach was very artisanal,” said Rohan. “He was never a brand. His office may have changed, but it always had a nimbleness and an adaptability to it. We are living in an age of low overhead—I think architects today can appreciate that anew.”

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Image 5: Bold expressive concrete statements at Endo Laboratories, Garden City, Long Island, N.Y., 1960–64; a national real estate investment firm bought the property in 2005, renovating its interiors for use by a variety of tenants. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

After his 1960s rejection Rudolph turned inward, to lavish interior-design projects during the 1970s that made use of reflective surfaces, curvilinear geometry, and experimental lighting, including Rudolph’s own Beekman Place residence and the townhouse of 1970s fashion designer Halston in Manhattan along with numerous Fifth Avenue apartments. In the 1980s, he reworked many of his expressive Modernist ideas in projects overseas, such as the Colonnade Condominium in Singapore (Image 6) and the Lippo Centre in Hong Kong.

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Image 6: In the 1980s, Rudolph found work mostly in Asia, where his first completed project was the 27-floor Colonnade Condominium in Singapore, shown here under construction in 1980. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

But, unless you were a hardcore Rudolph junkie, you wouldn’t necessarily have known about these projects. They were not part of the Rudolph brand that, for many observers, reached its apogee in the late 1960s; nor were they as prominently featured in architecture media when they were completed.

“How do you preserve a legacy when you don’t know it’s a Rudolph?” asked Sean Khorsandi, AIA, co-chair of the Paul Rudolph Foundation. “I went through a five-year undergraduate bachelor of architecture program at Cooper Union, and I never once heard of Paul Rudolph.

“Rudolph’s government and civic projects may be among his most important, but the range of his career is staggering—including super-lush New York City interiors people never got to know and see,” said Khorsandi. “People like to categorize him as a Brutalist, but he had many phases and was very multifaceted, including prefab, urbanism, interior design, and glass-and-steel towers in Asia.

“He, in many ways, was the last modernist and became a fall guy for Modernism as Post-Modernism ascended. There has been an overabundance of attention on projects that were torn down,” said Khorsandi.

Heightened Awareness, Increased Preservation

It’s not hard to see the connection between a reconsideration of Rudolph and the demolition threats faced by some of his projects. He has become a preservation cause, for sure, but a particularly challenging one due to market forces or, in other cases, failing structure or deteriorating materials. Two of the three public schools Rudolph designed are now gone: Sarasota’s Riverview High School, built in 1958, was torn down in 2009, and the Chorley Elementary School in Middletown, N.Y., built in 1964, was demolished in 2013.

In 2007, Rudolph’s residential oeuvre was diminished with the destruction of three homes: the 1979 Louis Micheels House in Westport, Conn., the oceanfront 1956 Cerrito House in Watch Hill, R.I., and the Twitchell House in Siesta Key, Fla. The destruction of all three is documented in Chris Mottlaini’s revelatory photo essay, After You Left/They Took It Apart (Demolished Paul Rudolph Homes).

SHS Dec 2014_2

Image 7: Rudolph’s sole surviving public school, Sarasota High School (1958), reopened in January 2015 after an extensive renovation that preserved the building’s iconic façade. Photo by Janet Minker.

But the tide may be turning. On January 5, 2015, Randolph’s sole surviving public school, Sarasota High School (Image 7), reopened for the first time since 2009 to nearly 2,000 returning students. Built in 1959 without air conditioning or modern security systems, Rudolph’s aging school was part of a $42 million campus restoration effort that preserved the iconic roofline and façade while taking Rudolph’s structure down to the studs before rebuilding the interiors.

“The construction team put it back as close as we could from an exterior point of view to Rudolph’s original building,” said Paul Pitcher, project manager, Construction Services Department, Sarasota County Schools. “You will hear people say that we destroyed the inside of the building, but we are here to support students and we saved the building. Given the asbestos abatement and what it took to get the building back to where it needed to be, we will have spent more on this building than if we had just knocked it down and built a new building.”

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Image 8: Rudolph was a master pen-and-ink draftsman, as shown in this 1956 perspective rendering for Wellesley College’s Jewett Arts Center, his first major commission outside of Florida. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.

Elsewhere, restoration of the interiors as well as the exterior mosaic patterned sunscreens that envelope the Jewett Arts Center at Wellesley College (1958) (Image 8) has been completed. Executed from 1955 to 1958, the arts center was Rudolph’s first significant project outside Florida—a commission he received over other better-known contemporaries at the time such as Eero Saarinen and Edward Durell Stone.

Following widespread preservation protests, Rudolph’s Orange County Government Center, once on the chopping block, has been saved but stands mostly vacant—at least for now. UMass Dartmouth’s campus, which contains 16 of Rudolph’s best buildings, now operates the website Paul Rudolph & His Architecture that chronicles his work and offers some perspective on preserving not just a suite of buildings, but an individual talent’s legacy.

New Generation, New Appreciation

Today, a new generation of architects and design enthusiasts are paying homage to Rudolph in both word and deed.

Umbrella House restored Photo Bill Miller

Image 9: The lattice-encased Umbrella House, built in Sarasota, Fla., in 1953, is the inspiration for Larry Scarpa’s, FAIA, own solar-powered umbrella house. Photo by Bill Miller.

“I grew up around the Umbrella House” said Florida native Lawrence Scarpa, FAIA, principal at Brooks + Scarpa. “The Umbrella House (Image 9) was built in 1953 [in Sarasota]. Air conditioning existed, yet Rudolph shaded the house with an umbrella canopy, buying tomato sticks from local farmers to construct the slats. It is so ahead of its time—not just in its beauty but in the way it coexists with nature.

“When I built my own Solar Umbrella House [in Venice Beach, Calif.], Rudolph’s Umbrella House was my inspiration,” Scarpa explained. “Like the original, it has proper orientation, shading, and cross-ventilation. But it also has 80 solar panels, and the solar canopy is part of the architecture. Our utility bill is less than $500 a year. When I start projects, I look for historical precedents, and I always wind up in the 1950s and ’60s. It was a magical time of new technologies and building thinking.”

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Image 10: The Harkavy House, 1957, on Lido Shores in Sarasota, Fla., where Susan Harkavy grew up. Photo: Ezra Stoller.

Susan Harkavy grew up three blocks away from the Umbrella House in a two-bedroom house on Lido Shores in Sarasota, Fla., that Rudolph designed in 1957. (Image 10) She returned decades later for a visit and encountered a sympathetic addition that expanded the original structure, which remained mostly intact. Memories flooded back on how the house changed her life.

“When I got to college, I found myself veering towards European modern art history classes and I didn’t know why,” said Harkavy, who now lives in New York City.

“I went to Yale—which of course had so much Gothic architecture—and I didn’t realize it but the house where I had lived for 18 years had seeped into my being, and I just felt like Modernism was home. When I started my own business, the clients I chose were all modernists. I ended up writing a letter to the editor of Interiors magazine after it had done a four-page story on the renovation of the Umbrella House, about how Rudolph had charted my career direction.”

Stoller_WalkerGuestHouse

Image 11: Walker Guest House, Sanibel Island, Fla., is Rudolph’s first solo commission and will be duplicated and installed on the grounds of the Ringling Museum of Art in Sarasota this fall to increase public awareness of Rudolph as the centennial of his birth approaches in 2018. Photo: Ezra Stoller.

“I didn’t learn anything about Paul Rudolph in architecture school,” said Joyce Owens, AIA, who is now using his original drawings to help re-create a full-scale replica of Rudolph’s first solo commission—the 1953 Walker Guest House (Image 11)—in a project spearheaded by the Sarasota Architectural Foundation.

The house, which still stands on Sanibel Island, Fla., will be duplicated exactly from Rudolph’s original drawings as a kit of parts, so visitors can tour it later this year on the grounds of the Ringling Museum of Art, and in other venues in the future.

“For various reasons, Paul Rudolph was dealt a bad deal at some point. This is my way to help restore his legacy,” Owens said.

As we approach the 100th anniversary of Paul Rudolph’s birth, in 2018, projects like the Walker Guest House, along with increased scholarship and preservation, are painting a new place in modern architectural history for a designer committed to teaching and practice, and driven by a consistent vision to improve and reinvent. He showed the world that Modernism is so much more than a steel and glass box.

Mike Singer is a frequent contributor to AIArchitect.

SAF Lecture 1-22-15: Harry Bertoia, Midcentury Designer

Harry Bertoia (1915-1978), the brilliant midcentury modern designer, left an enormous legacy of sculptures, furniture, drawings and jewelry. He designed chairs for Knoll, crafted over 50 public sculptures, etched hundreds of monotypes, and welded thousands of art pieces. Bertoia pushed the wave of modern art into an expansive period of exploration of not only visual, but practical and auditory and tactile art. From delicate jewelry to massive fountains, from an asymmetrical chaise lounge to petite children’s chairs, from detailed graphics to thunderous gongs; this artist took what he infused from Nature’s beauty and transformed it into uplifting experiential pieces.

Hear his youngest daughter, Celia Bertoia, describe Bertoia’s work and life, focusing on HB-1978the history of his chairs, which were designed in the 1950’s and are still being produced today. She’ll share anecdotes about her father’s life, early history of Knoll, and pose the question of relevancy of midcentury modern design in today’s world.

Celia Bertoia’s biography of Harry Bertoia, “The Life and Work of Harry Bertoia”, will be released in March 2015. Celia and her husband live in Montana for most of the year and Tucson for part of the winter. As director of the Harry Bertoia Foundation, her mission is to further the legacy of her father.

Thank you to our sponsors, Home Resource and Knoll, for tonight’s display of Bertoia chairs.

Click to Register Online
Public $15
SAF Member $10
Student, full-time Free

Links of Interest
www.harrybertoia.org
www.arietobertoia.org
www.knoll.com/designer/Harry-Bertoia

Thursday, January 22, 2015
5:30 to 8 pm
Herald-Tribune
1741 Main Street, Sarasota, FL 34236

5:00 to 5:30 pm Check-in
5:30 to 6:30 pm Lecture
6:30 to 7:00 pm Q + A
7:00 to 8:00 pm Meet-and-Greet Reception

Photos shown: Top – courtesy of Knoll. The Bertoia Diamond chair has been in continuous production since 1952 by Knoll. Bottom – Harry Bertoia in front of the monumental sounding sculptures at the Standard Oil Building in 1978. Photographer unknown.