Lessons of resiliency from Sarasota School of Architecture

By Max Strang

Practicality underpinned the architecture scene that unfolded in Sarasota in the 1950s and 60s. As the ‘Sarasota School of Architecture’ movement was taking shape upon the shifting sands and unforgiving summers of Florida’s gulf coast… Paul Rudolph, Ralph Twitchell, and a band of “twenty-something” architects were redefining how to live by the water in America’s subtropics. According to them, the prevailing style of Mediterranean Revival architecture had no place here. Instead, a new approach of “building light and building smart” took hold. Their specific responses to site and climate contributed to a progressive new era in American architecture. In fact, today the ‘Sarasota School’ movement is internationally recognized as a high point of ‘regional modernist’ architecture. Although, the original ‘Sarasota School’ movement ended over fifty years ago I am awed by its timelessness. Many of its lessons are informing the work of my firm as we face the challenges of a changing climate.

As the seas rise and threats of localized flooding increase, coastal homes must be prohibited from using traditional ‘slab-on-grade’ construction methodologies.

At that exciting time in Sarasota, a small number of homes were raised on stilts in search of breezes and views. As a side benefit, those homes were better equipped to handle the occasional hurricane storm surge. Fast forward to today and our coastal cities are confronting compounded and existential threats from rising sea levels, Houstonesque flooding and devastating storm surges from more powerful and more frequent hurricanes. Now is the time to apply those ‘Sarasota School’ lessons and equip our homes, buildings and cities with the strategies of resiliency.

Rudolph’s Walker Guest House, a diminutive powerhouse of architectural design, hints at the strategy of raising the home above the ground. This strategy was more boldly realized with the design of the Leavengood Residence and also the unbuilt design for the Walker Main House. The first takeaway of those latter designs is the simple response of ensuring homes are built higher above the ground. As the seas rise and threats of localized flooding increase, coastal homes must be prohibited from using traditional ‘slab-on-grade’ construction methodologies. Yes, it’s more expensive, but those cost pale in comparison to the long-term financial implications of not building with the future in mind.

 

Sarasota, Florida, map

 

Currently, the Army Corps of Engineers establishes requirements regarding the minimum elevations of new structures. An opportunity exists for local municipalities to go beyond these mandated minimums. The costs associated with raising existing homes will be difficult to overcome, however, it makes sense that new construction conforms to stricter standards. Coastal cities need to encourage their residents to build higher. In the long run, the savings on insurance premiums and costly repairs will be enormous. The rewards for building higher clearly outweigh upfront costs.

The second takeaway from the ‘Sarasota School’ is the prospect of using the area beneath the home as functional and aesthetically-inspiring spaces. Current building and zoning codes prevent the effective utilization of the areas beneath a raised home. I propose that such codes be refined to allow homeowners to enjoy the full potential of these covered, outdoor spaces. A home that exceeds the minimum required height above the ground provides a much greater opportunity to create enjoyable outdoor living spaces below.

A major driver of ‘climate change’ and ‘sea level rise’ is our culture’s reliance on fossil fuels to power inefficient buildings.

A major driver of ‘climate change’ and ‘sea level rise’ is our culture’s reliance on fossil fuels to power inefficient buildings. To mitigate this issue, new buildings must become more energy-efficient.Sarasota’s early modern homes offer wonderful examples of this. Thus, the final takeaway from the ‘Sarasota School’ is the consideration of ‘passive design ’ features such as deep overhangs, sun-shading devices, evaporative cooling, daylighting and cross-ventilation.

 

Sarasota house by Paul Rudolph
Drawing by Paul Rudolph, Library of Congress

The Healy Guest House was envisioned as a small structure protected by a protective spray-on “cocoon” roofing product and wrapped with sun-shading louvers. Similarly, the beloved “Umbrella House”, one of the 20th century’s most iconic houses, resides beneath its iconic umbrella of slats. Most of the early ‘Sarasota School’ buildings featured deep overhangs and a brise-soleil. The aim was simple: to reduce the ‘heat gain’ of a building by deflecting sunlight. Aside from their inherent environmental benefits, such features often provided the architectural identity to the building. Ultimately, these ‘regional modernist’ influences informed the identity of the ‘Sarasota School’ movement as a whole.

Another innovative passive design feature was pioneered by John Lambie, a local Sarasota builder who collaborated with Paul Rudolph and Ralph Twitchell on some projects. His “lamolithic” homes had flat, concrete roofs which were covered with a layer of crushed shells. The shell membrane was kept damp and as the water evaporated under the hot Florida sun, a cooling effect permeated into home below.

While many will opt to strategically retreat from our shorelines, the allure of coastal living will continue to prove irresistible for others. Sarasota’s architectural history offers practical insights on how we must adapt for the future.

The concepts of the Sarasota School of Architecture remain the greatest influence upon me and my firm. Our work strives to incorporate the lessons of that essential modern movement and adapt them to a changed world. I suspect that these site-driven and climate-driven design responses have fueled our firm’s success. I am committed to the idea that the architectural identity of a home should be related to its relationship to its location and environment. Many of our designs feature vertical ‘fins’ that serve to reduce the home’s solar heat gain while also providing additional privacy for the occupants. As a result, these “fins” provide a striking identity for the home. The Tuckman Residence, scheduled for completion in 2018, is derived from Rudolph & Twitchell’s Leavengood Residence in which the main volume of the home is raised a full story above the existing ground. Similarly, our design for the Ballast Trail Residence in the Florida Keys is raised substantially above the ground, a move that proved crucial to its weathering of Hurricane Irma’s recent storm surge.

In 2018, my Miami-based firm will open a satellite office in Sarasota and my family will move into one of the few remaining “lamolithic’ homes on a nearby barrier island. At only five feet above sea level, that particular home is destined to succumb to the Gulf of Mexico. I remain inspired, however, by the opportunity and challenge of building new, building light, and building smart. While many will opt to strategically retreat from our shorelines, the allure of coastal living will continue to prove irresistible for others. Sarasota’s architectural history offers practical insights on how we must adapt for the future.

 

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MOD Artist Chair Auction

Ten amazing Sarasota Florida artists – Carl Abbott, FAIA, Jean Blackburn, Jorge Blanco, Olivia Craig and Eric Cross, Grace Howl, Tim Jaeger, Laine Nixon, John Pirman and Nathan Skiles – will paint an iconic Eames chair to be auctioned off at SarasotaMOD 2017.

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The auction will help raise funds to benefit the Sarasota Architectural Foundation (SAF)’s ongoing programs that educate and create awareness about the importance of the Sarasota School of Architecture movement.

Friday, October 27th online bidding will begin when the chairs are unveiled at the MOD Kick-Off Party at the BOTA Center, hosted by MOD Sponsor and developer Howard Davis. Online bidding continues through MOD Weekend, and the artists chairs will be on display at Home Resource, 741 Central Avenue, Sarasota, FL 34236.

Chair winners will be announced 11:30 am on Sunday, November 12th at the at SarasotaMOD Rosemary District Walking Tour at Home Resource. Tickets On Sale

Thank You to Our Sponsors
Michael Bush
, SAF Board Member and owner of Home Resource and Herman Miller.

Bayfront MOD

Sarasota is filled with amazing modern architecture. A recent morning walk along the bayfront was spent looking up and admiring the varied, angular roof lines.

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Top left to right
Van Wezel Concert Hall
, 1970, William Wesley Peters, Taliesin Architects
GWiz, 1976, Skidmore & Merrill and Jack West; restoration 2000, Dale Parks, CCP Architects
Beau Ciel Condominium, 2003, Curtis Gaines Hall Jones Architects

The Van Wezel and GWiz buildings are under threat as the future of Sarasota’s bayfront is reimagined by the community-based Sarasota Bayfront Planning Organization.

The Sarasota Bayfront Planning Organization (SBPO) was formed in 2016, building on work completed by the Sarasota Bayfront 20:20 organization to advance the development of City-owned land along the Sarasota Bayfront. This private-public partnership with the City of Sarasota is headed by a nine-person board: chairman A.G. Lafley, treasurer Cathy Layton, secretary Jennifer Compton, Tom Barwin, Al Carlson, Keith Dubose, Michael Klauber, Rob Lane and Cynthia McCague. The SBPO is tasked with ensuring the delivery of a professionally prepared master plan for the sustainable development of the 42-acre Sarasota Bayfront in accordance with the Guiding Principles established by the community and the City of Sarasota Commission. The SBPO will oversee the development of an operating structure that will professionally manage the Sarasota Bayfront Project during and following construction.

Six stakeholder representatives serve, along with board member Michael Klauber, on the Steering Committee as an independent organization:

Neighborhood Associations
Bob Pirollo – Downtown Sarasota Condo Association
Steven Roskamp – North Trail Redevelopment Partnership

Cultural and Educational Organizations
Jim Shirley – Arts and Cultural Alliance of Sarasota County
Dr. Larry R. Thompson – Ringling College of Arts and Design

Civic Groups
Kevin Cooper – Greater Sarasota Chamber of Commerce
Bill Seider – The Community Foundation of Sarasota County

Master plan proposals were submitted from 22 teams and 4 teams were selected for final interviews on October 3 – 4, 2017. The winning prime consultant will be selected on October 11, 2017.

SarasotaMOD Tickets on Sale

MOD 2017 Tickets on Sale

Download MOD 2017 Schedule

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Join us for the fourth annual SarasotaMOD Weekend – tickets go on sale August 15th

Cocoon House on Bayou Louise

The Sarasota Architectural Foundation (SAF) presented homeowner Dr. Barry LaClair with a framed poster of the Cocoon House, aka Healy Guest House, signed by the illustrator and designer John Pirman. This famous Sarasota School home was designed in 1950 by Ralph Twitchell and Paul Rudolph, and is on SAF’s Top Ten Must-See List of midcentury modern buildings in Sarasota, Florida. The house will be featured on trolley tours during SAF’s fourth annual architecture festival, SarasotaMOD, November 10-12, 2017. Event tickets go on sale August 15, 2017. SarasotaMOD.com

Cocoon House PosterProceeds from the Cocoon House poster benefit SAF’s ongoing programs and will be on sale at the MOD Shop during SarasotaMOD Weekend. For sales inquiries, please email info@SAF-SRQ.org.

Did You Know: In 1953, the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA) in New York City selected the Cocoon House as one of the 19 examples of houses built after World War II as a pioneer design of the future.

The cantilevered roof has steel straps fastened to flexible insulation boards that maintains its curved catenary shape with a sprayed on “cocoon” roofing material.